The colours on the map are used to show altitude layers, for example, green between 0 and 200 metres, yellow from 200 to 500 metres, and brown above 500 metres.
The relation of the size of a map to the actual size of its area on the ground expressed as a "representative fraction". For example 1:1,000,000 means one unit of length on the map represents one million such units on the ground. A scale can also be expressed as a "scale bar" on the map, for example showing the length of a mile or kilometre on the map. The term "large scale" is generally applied to maps at scales larger than 1:25,000 eg. 1:10,000; 1:2,500.
The technique used by cartographers to turn the spherical surface of the earth to a flat plane in order to represent it on a flat piece of paper. There are hundreds of different projections; none can be an absolutely faithful representation but certain qualities can be preserved, for example, correct shape, distance or area.
A system of x-y coordinates applied digitally to a map which enables any point on the map to be located automatically on calling up its coordinates. Alternatively clicking onto any point on the map will yield the coordinates of that point.